Determinación de polonio-210 (210Po) en alimentos y agua: una revisión (2014-2019)

  • Nataly Rocío Barbosa González Universidad Distrital Francisco José de Caldas, Bogotá, Colombia
  • Jaidith Marisol Ramos Rincón Universidad Distrital Francisco José de Caldas, Bogotá, Colombia https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0995-6327
Palabras clave: polonio-210, alimentos, agua, elementos radiactivos

Resumen

El polonio-210 (210Po) es uno de los radionúclidos que genera mayor preocupación debido a su radiotoxicidad. La mayoría del 210Po que se encuentra en nuestro entorno se produce de forma natural y su distribución ambiental es el resultado de dos procesos principales: 1) la liberación de radón-222 (222Rn) de la corteza terrestre y 2) la disolución del radio-226 (226Ra) en fuentes hídricas, ambas, matrices ambientales  dinámicas que contribuyen a la dispersión de radioisótopos y de procesos antropogénicos como el de las industrias de fosfato, la minería de uranio y la explotación de carbón, responsables de la liberación de 210Po en acuíferos. Es importante reconocer que por medio de las redes tróficas se puede generar distribución de este radioisótopo, pues está presente en varios alimentos y en el agua. Para ampliar esta información, se realizó una revisión bibliográfica, siguiendo la metodología PRISMA, y se encontró que existen varios estudios, en especial en países europeos. En América se observa que los únicos países que han adelantado investigaciones al respecto son Brasil, Canadá y Estados Unidos. En Colombia, el Instituto de Asuntos Nucleares, el Servicio Geológico Colombiano y la Universidad Nacional sede Medellín han desarrollado  estudios, pero no hay publicaciones sobre este tema en las bases de datos para el periodo 2014-2019.  Durante la revisión, se encontraron diferentes metodologías para la preparación de muestras y análisis de 210Po en alimentos y agua, por tanto, se elaboró una metodología que reuniera los métodos más  económicos y fiables para futuras investigaciones de tipo experimental. Se concluye que es importante  monitorear los alimentos para la determinación y cuantificación de elementos radiactivos, pues, de acuerdo  con los datos experimentales reportados en los artículos revisados, la dosis efectiva por 210Po aportada por  alimentos puede llegar a causar daños en la salud, sobre todo la proveniente de alimentos de mar. 

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Cómo citar
[1]
N. R. Barbosa González y J. M. Ramos Rincón, «Determinación de polonio-210 (210Po) en alimentos y agua: una revisión (2014-2019)», rev. investig. apl. nucl., n.º 5, pp. 26-43, oct. 2021.

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Publicado
2021-10-28
Cómo citar
[1]
N. R. Barbosa González y J. M. Ramos Rincón, «Determinación de polonio-210 (210Po) en alimentos y agua: una revisión (2014-2019)», rev. investig. apl. nucl., n.º 5, pp. 26-43, oct. 2021.
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