Geological-structural mapping and geocronology of shear zones: A methodological proposal

Palabras clave: Zonas de cizalla, rocas de falla, régimen frágil, transición frágil-dúctil, régimen dúctil, mapeo, geocronología

Resumen

La deformación registrada en las unidades geológicas en campo se puede caracterizar a partir de las estructuras encontradas en afloramientos, las cuales se relacionan, generalmente, con amplias zonas de discontinuidad denominadas fallas y zonas de cizalla. El mapeo geológico-estructural y la geocronología de estas estructuras tectónicas es un tema de gran interés, no solo para el modelamiento tectónico, sino para la reconstrucción de la evolución geológica de un territorio. Metodológicamente, para el mapeo geológico-estructural y la geocronología de fallas y zonas de cizalla se sugieren ocho fases, que incluyen: 1) definición del contexto geológico en el cual se desarrolló la estructura; 2) fotointerpretación, geoprocesamiento de imágenes y mapeo geológico-estructural de las características estructurales y litológicas de las fallas y zonas de cizalla; 3) análisis petrográfico de muestras orientadas en campo; 4) cuantificación de la orientación y geometría de deformación mediante análisis de deformación finita 3D y cuantificación de deformación no-coaxial por medio de análisis de vorticidad; 5) análisis submicroscópico SEM-TEM-EBSD; 6) cuantificación de condiciones de deformación P-T por medio de modelamiento de equilibrio de fases o geotermobarometría convencional; 7) datación de minerales sincinemáticos y rocas miloníticas por el método Ar-Ar, con el fin de determinar las edades de reactivación y deformación de la estructura, respectivamente, así como, la implementación de la técnica U-Pb en cristales sincinemáticos de calcita desarrollados en los planos de falla y en cristales de apatito con la finalidad de entender la evolución temporal de las zonas de cizalla; y finalmente, 8) fechamiento de elementos geológicos adyacentes a la estructura, tales como: intrusivos sincinemáticos asociados al evento deformacional por el método U-Pb en circón, rocas alteradas hidrotermalmente mediante el método Ar-Ar, y datación por trazas de fisión en circón y apatito de los bloques adyacentes a las fallas para determinar edades de exhumación.

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Cómo citar
Forero Ortega, A. J., Lopéz Isaza, J. A., López Herrera, N. R., Cuéllar Cárdenas, M. A., Cetina Tarazona, L. M., & Aguirre Hoyos, L. M. (2021). Geological-structural mapping and geocronology of shear zones: A methodological proposal. Boletín Geológico, 48(1), 81-122. https://doi.org/10.32685/0120-1425/bol.geol.48.1.2021.524

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2021-07-12
Cómo citar
Forero Ortega, A. J., Lopéz Isaza, J. A., López Herrera, N. R., Cuéllar Cárdenas, M. A., Cetina Tarazona, L. M., & Aguirre Hoyos, L. M. (2021). Geological-structural mapping and geocronology of shear zones: A methodological proposal. Boletín Geológico, 48(1), 81-122. https://doi.org/10.32685/0120-1425/bol.geol.48.1.2021.524

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